Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Facts
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, includes:
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Big Island, is situated southwest of Hilo. It was founded in 1961 and was previously part of Hawaii National Park, which was founded in 1916. It covers a total area of 505 square miles (1,308 square km).
Mauna Loa and Kilauea, two of the world’s most active and accessible volcanoes, are located within Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, where continuing geological processes can be witnessed. Volcano Park is a great example of how volcanic activity can create islands.
Volcano Park contains at least six distinct climatic zones, including the desert, tropical forest, and tundra. Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Big Island chain was formed as a result of tectonic plate movement over a hot point.
Polynesian explorers later settled on the islands, bringing their own worldview with them. Volcanism creates a protective shield through the act of shielding. The park’s scenery is constantly changing and evolving.
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park History
The world’s largest volcano, Mauna Loa, is located in the island’s south-central region. Its bulk rises about 3 miles (5 kilometers) from the ocean floor, then another 2.6 miles (4.2 kilometers) to an elevation of 13,677 feet (4,169 metres) above sea level.
Mauna Loa, which occupies half of the island, is a shield volcano that has erupted several dozen times since its first well-documented eruption in 1843. Its summit caldera measures about 2 by 3 miles (3 by 5 kilometers) in diameter and is 600 feet (180 metres) deep. The volcano has been active on and off, erupting both from its caldera and from fissures in its flanks.
A flank lava flow from the volcano’s northeastern side entered the outskirts of Hilo in 1881. A lava flow from the volcano’s southwestern rift zone reached the ocean in less than three hours in 1950, traveling at a speed of 5.8 miles (9.3 km) per hour. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa occurred in 1984 as a result of earthquake activity beneath the volcano.
Kilauea volcano national park
Kilauea, located east of Mauna Loa, is the world’s most active volcano. It is the state’s newest. It occupies approximately one-seventh of the island of Hawaii (southeast) and rises to approximately 4,090 feet (1,250 metres) above sea level.
It is also a shield volcano, with a summit caldera similar to but not quite as deep as Mauna Loa’s. The most active vent on Kilauea is the Halema’uma’u Crater, which is located within the caldera.
Following the abrupt draining of Halema’uma’u’s active lava lake in 1924, a series of steam explosions ejecting ash and blocks of lava occurred. Sporadic eruptions in Halema’uma’u Crater occurred after that, including a four-month eruption in 1952.
Kilauea’s subsequent eruptions have primarily occurred in the volcano’s east rift zone, becoming continuous in 1983. First, the Pu’u ‘O’o vent, located southeast of Kilauea’s caldera on the national park’s boundary, erupted lava fountains that reached heights of 1,540 feet (470 meters).
The eruption then shifted 2 miles (3 km) northeast of Pu’u ‘O’o to the new Kupaianaha vent in 1986, from which a quiet effusion of lava continued to flow and eventually reached the ocean; in 1990, lava buried the entire historic community of Kalapana.
The flow of lava returned to the Pu’u ‘O’o vent in 1992, where a cinder cone had previously formed. In 1997, lava from Pu’u ‘O’o flowed through a 7-mile-long (11-kilometer-long) lava tube system and reached the ocean. This eruption lasted into the early twenty-first century, adding 500 acres (200 hectares) of new land to Hawaii’s southern shore.
A series of eruptions in the eastern rift zone in 2018 opened several fissures that cut through residential areas, releasing lava and clouds of sulfur dioxide gas. One powerful eruption ejected a plume of volcanic ash 30,000 feet (9,140 meters) into the air.
The Ka’u Desert, a region of unusual lava formations in the rain shadow of Kilauea, is another highlight of the national park. The Mauna Loa Trail, which leads from Kilauea to the summit of that volcano, The tree fern forest, a dense tropical area that receives nearly 100 inches (2,500 mm) of rain per year, and the museum at the park headquarters.
Kipuka is located northwest of Kilauea. Puaulu is also referred to as “The Bird Park.” A nature trail leads from a grassy meadow dotted with clumps of koa, ohia, soapberry, kolea, and mamani trees to an open forest teeming with native tree varieties. Tropical birds abound in the park. Mongooses, wild goats and pigs, as well as pheasants and quail, are examples of introduced wildlife.
Hawaii volcanoes national park webcam
Some believe that Pele, the goddess of fire, dwells inside the Kilauea crater in Hale Ma’uma’u. Western travelers began visiting in 1823 to view Kilauea, and housing became necessary. On the caldera rim, the first wooden Volcano House was erected in 1877. Mark Twain was one of the early guests in 1844.
He spent four months on the islands, writing about his experiences. Today, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park receives approximately 2.6 million visitors every year. Dr. Thomas A. Jaggar established the Hawaii Volcanoes Observatory in 1912. It once occupied what is now the Park Headquarters.
The Observatory then relocated to an older structure on Kilauea’s western rim before relocating to a purpose-built lab next door in 1985. The previous structure was turned into a museum dedicated to Jaggar.
Working science and culture collided here, with real-time seismic seismographs, a view of Hale Ma’uma’u Crater, and a tribute to Pele. The museum and HOV were closed in the summer of 2018 owing to damage caused by Kilauea’s ongoing eruption and crater floor collapse. Only a fraction of the park has reopened.