Brasilia is the capital of both the Federal District of Brazil and the whole country. The city is in the middle of the Brazilian highlands, which are in the central-west part of the country. On April 21, 1960, President Juscelino Kubitschek made it the new capital of the country. People think that Brasília has the third largest population out of all of Brazil’s cities. It has the highest GDP per person of any city in Latin America.
In 1987, Brasilia was added to the list of World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. Because of the way the city was put together and the modern buildings. In October 2017, UNESCO named it a “City of Design.” Since then, it has been a part of the Creative Cities Network.
Facts About Brasilia
Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer, and Joaquim Cardozo came up with the idea for Brasilia as a planned city in 1956. They wanted to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a place in the middle of the country. Roberto Burle Marx was the one who made the garden. The layout of the city divides it into numbered blocks and places where certain things happen, such as the hotel sector, the banking sector, and the embassy sector.
All three parts of Brazil’s federal government are located in the city: the executive, the legislature, and the courts. There are also 124 embassies from other countries in Brasilia. The city’s international airport, which is the third busiest in Brazil, connects it to all the other big cities in Brazil and a few places outside of Brazil. It was one of the main cities that hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. It was also one of the cities that hosted the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.
Brazil doesn’t have any other cities like this one. It is not a city in the legal sense because it is not a legal city like other cities in Brazil. Instead, it is an administrative division. Even though Brasilia is sometimes used to refer to the Federal District. There are 31 administrative regions in the Federal District, but only one is Plano Piloto, which is where the city was first planned. IBGE thinks that the rest of the Federal District is the metro area of Brasilia.
Salvador was the first capital city of Brazil. In 1763, Rio de Janeiro became the capital, and it stayed that way until 1960. At this time, most of Brazil’s resources were in the southeast, and most of its people lived along the Atlantic coast. Because it is in the middle of the country, Brasilia has become a more neutral federal capital.
Rio de Janeiro shouldn’t be the capital, says the country’s first republican constitution, which was written in 1891. It should be moved to a place close to the middle of the country. Jose Bonifacio, who was an advisor to Emperor Pedro I at the time, came up with the plan in 1827. He showed the General Assembly of Brazil a plan for a new city called Brasilia.
The plan was to move the capital from an area with a lot of people in the southeast to an area with fewer people in the west. Because Pedro I got rid of the Assembly, the bill did not become law. The story goes that in 1883, the Italian saint Don Bosco had a dream about a city in the future that was about where Brasilia is now. Everyone in Brasilia talks a lot about Bosco, who started the Salesian order. The name of a church parish in the city is also a way to remember him.
In 1955, Juscelino Kubitschek was chosen to be the President of Brazil. As he had promised during his campaign, he started planning and building the new capital as soon as he took office in January 1956. The following year, a group of people from all over the world chose Lucio Costa’s plan as the basis for building Brasilia, the new capital of Brazil.
Le Corbusier was a well-known modernist architect, and Costa was one of his students. Some parts of his plan look like they were designed by a modernist. Costa’s plans were not as detailed as those of some of the other architects and city planners. One of the plan’s main goals was to make it easy for cars to get around.
The plan called for seven lanes of traffic going north to south on the Monumental Axis and three major north-to-south roads (the W3, the Eixo, and the L2). The main flow of traffic was supposed to end at the cul-de-sac access roads to the superblocks. And the architect put so much emphasis on car traffic because he wanted to show that everything in the city was new.
As president of Brazil from 1956 to 1961, Juscelino Kubitschek gave the order to build Brasilia. He did this in accordance with the Constitution and a campaign promise. Juscelino’s plan for “fifty years of prosperity in five.” included building Brasilia. In 1892, the Brazilian government hired astronomer Louis Cruls to figure out where the future capital would be.
Lucio Costa was the most important person who worked on city planning in 1957. He won a contest by beating 5,550 other people. Most of the public buildings were designed by Oscar Niemeyer. Joaquim Cardozo oversaw the buildings, and Roberto Burle Marx was in charge of the grounds. From June 1956 until April 21, 1960, when it was officially opened, it took 41 months to build the city of Brasilia.
Paranoa Lake Brasilia
The city is in the center of the Brazilian highlands in the country’s central-western region. A big lake called Paranoa Lake was made by people to add more water and keep the humidity level in the area stable. People who wakeboard and windsurf like to go there because it has a marina. You can also go diving, and Vila Amaury, an old village that is now under the water, is one of the best places to see. This is where the first people who helped build Brasilia lived.
The weather in Brasilia is warm and mild, with an average low temperature of about 57 °F (14 °C) and a high temperature of about 81 °F (27 °C). About 60 inches (1,600 mm) of rain falls on average each year, and there is a dry season from March to October. Most of the time, the humidity is between 40 and 80%. In 1994, when there was a drought, it dropped to 11%.
There are both foreigners and Brazilians living in Brasilia, like ambassadors and their staff. Some of the people who helped build the city came from poor places in the Northeast. Later, more people from Rio de Janeiro and other cities moved to work in the government’s many agencies. In the first ten years after the city was built, a lot of people moved into both the central area and the outlying areas.
In 1959, about 64,000 people lived in the city itself. By 1970, that number had grown to more than 272,000. The Federal District was home to 139,796 people in 1960. There were 537,492 people living there after 10 years. At the start of the 21st century, around the same number of people lived in both the city and the Federal District. There were more than 2 million of them.
National Museum Brasilia
Since it opened in 1962, the University of Brasilia has been a big part of the city’s cultural life. Many national events in the arts and letters are supported by the Cultural Foundation, and there are many places to learn about other countries. The National Theater is an irregular pyramid-shaped building where plays, symphonies, and operas are put on.
The Museum of Brasilia has information about how the city was built. There are also historical places like the Federal Reserve Museum and the Image and Sound Museum of the Institute of History and Geography. There weren’t many places to have fun in Brasilia before, but now there are many movie theaters, nightclubs, and sports fields in the city and nearby areas.
The city also has a lot of places to swim. People like to fish and boat on Lake Paranoa and the nearby rivers. There is also a zoo park and forest reserves. The city has two stadiums for professional soccer, and one of them also has an indoor arena where other sports can be played.