The ruins of Aksum, an ancient city in Ethiopia, may be discovered near the country’s northern border. They mark the location of ancient Ethiopia’s heart.
Aksum Empire, includes:
Kingdom of Aksum
Between the Eastern Roman Empire and Persia, the Kingdom of Aksum was the most powerful state. The huge ruins date from the first to the thirteenth centuries A.D.
It contains gigantic obelisks, massive stelae, royal tombs, and old castle ruins. Ethiopian rulers were still crowned at Aksum long after the country’s political demise in the 10th century.
The governments of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, and Somaliland now control the former Aksumite empire. Agriculture, cattle herding, and trade route control allowed gold and ivory to be exchanged for foreign luxury goods, and the country prospered.
The kingdom and its capital, Axum, created permanent stone structures and set a number of records. It was the first state in Sub-Saharan Africa to manufacture its own currency, and the first to officially adopt Christianity in the year 350 CE.
Ge’ez, Axum’s own script, is still in use in Ethiopia today. Due to rising rivalry from Muslim Arab traders and the growth of rival native peoples such as the Bedja, the kingdom began to fall in the 7th century CE.
The remnants of the formerly powerful kingdom of Axum would later rise again and establish the vast kingdom of Abyssinia in the 13th century CE, surviving as a much smaller region to the south.
The name Axum, or Akshum, as it is often known, may be derived from a mixture of two terms from local languages: Agew for water and Ge’ez for official, shum. The mention of water is most likely due to the presence of massive ancient rock cisterns in the vicinity of Axum’s capital.
The Ethiopian empire of Axum now uses the term Negusa Negast, or “King of Kings,” to describe itself. Since the Stone Age, the region has been occupied by agrarian populations with a civilization comparable to that of southern Arabia.
However, in the first century CE, the ancient kingdom of Axum began to develop. Because of its fertile agricultural lands, consistent summer monsoon rains, and regional trade control.
This trade network included connections to Egypt in the north and the East African coast and southern Arabia in the east.
Wheat, barley, millet, and teff (a high-yield grain) have all been successfully farmed in the region since at least the first millennium BCE, while cattle herding dates back to the second millennium BCE, with the vast grassland Savannah of the Ethiopian plateau assisting in this endeavor.
Farm animals and lambs were also herded, and the absence of tropical parasitic diseases that had afflicted other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa was a bonus for everyone.
As a result, a single king supplanted a confederation of chiefdoms in the late first century CE, forging a consolidated kingdom that would rule the Ethiopian highlands for the following six centuries. At the time, Axum became one of the most powerful kingdoms on the globe.
Why was Aksum able to control International trade?
Have you heard of Persia? You do, of course! Rome? Clearly, Aksum? The Kingdom of Aksum was a prominent African empire that flourished between 100 and 940 CE. One of the most powerful kingdoms you’ve never heard of was Aksum.
Along the Red Sea, the Aksum Empire was located near modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. Aksum was a significant trading power. This means that its economy is nearly totally reliant on international trade and exports. In the ancient world, Aksum served as a major commercial hub.
Aksum, Ethiopia, was in charge of transporting products from as far away as Rome and India between the eastern and western worlds.
To give you an idea of how important a trading center this was, consider the following: The capital city of Aksum is thought to be one of the Ark of the Covenant’s possible resting locations. That’s a huge deal.
Around the year 100 CE, a new sailing technique arose that took use of seasonal breezes to cross the Red and Arabian Seas fast.
It has boosted the quantity of trade that can move through that area. Right on the Red Sea, Aksum was able to dominate the international commercial market.